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A Short History on African-American Settlers and Communities at Center Ridge, Arkansas

The Sweet Home Church and the Mt. Zion Church, two historically African-American churches in the rural town of Center Ridge, Arkansas, will hold a community homecoming September 1-2. I have been asked to present a history of the Sweet Home and Mt. Zion communities at the Sunday morning service.  Please keep in mind this is still a draft and is ultimately meant to be shared orally at the homecoming.

The Friendship School atop Morris Mountain boasted a large number of pupils in the circa 1905 photograph.

A History of African-American Settlers and Communities at Center Ridge, Arkansas

(prepared for the Sweet Home and Mt. Zion Community Homecoming September 2012)

White settlers arrived in the Lick Mountain Township (a few miles west of Center Ridge) in the late 1830s. Many of these families were staunch supporters of the Union during the Civil War which put them at odds with Confederate rebels in other parts of the county. The city of Center Ridge, Arkansas was founded in 1878. Twelve years later, Center Ridge boasted 250 residents, four general stores, two hotels, a drugstore, a school a mill, and a cotton gin. Most of the African-American settlers made their homes in rural communities outside town.

In the 1870 census, taken a few years after the Civil War, no African-Americans are recorded in the Lick Mountain Township (which included what would soon be Center Ridge). The following decade (1870-1880), the population of African-Americans in Conway County increased over 400%. This mass migration of African-Americans came from many former slave states such as the Carolinas, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee. The following decade (1880-1890), the number of black citizens again doubled. Many of these pioneers were former slaves and their children who sought a better life in and around Center Ridge, Arkansas. They established communities in rural Conway County that thrived for decades. The vast majority of these pioneers were farmers but some also worked as blacksmiths, carpenters, preachers, and teachers. Some received federal homestead grants, and these settlers built schools, churches, and homes around Morris Mountain, Cypress Creek, and Hogan’s Creek.

Churches became the social and spiritual focal point of the communities. Most churches had a large bell to announce special events and deaths in the area. Churches often included cemeteries to recognize those who had passed on. Many early churches services included an Amen Corner and a Moaners Bench. The Mt. Zion Methodist Church was founded in 1879 and is the oldest surviving African-American church in Center Ridge. Early families include the Morris family from Georgia, the Brockman, Clinkscale, Dunbar, Gaylord, Govan, Gilreath, Mayfield, Oates, Roseburrow, and Vaughan families from South Carolina, the Tyus family from Tennessee, and the Foster family.

A picture of an older edition of the Mt. Zion church as taken from their 1979 Centennial Anniversary booklet.

In early September 1891, eleven Regular Baptist churches in rural Conway County formed the Cypress Creek Church District. This new association included five churches from the Center Ridge area: Cypress Creek Church, Friendship, Hopewell, Mt. Abel, and New Hope. South of Center Ridge, the Cypress Creek Church included the Stevenson family from Georgia, and the Garlington and Payne families from South Carolina. On top of Morris Mountain, Friendship church’s early membership included the Crymes, Dooley, Flood, Kemp, Knox, and Morris families from Georgia, the Green family of North Carolina, and the Govan, Langston, McCrary, and Smith families from South Carolina. Between Center Ridge and the Van Buren County line, the Hopewell community included the McFarland family from Georgia, the McDaniel family from South Carolina, and the Green and McCoy families from Tennessee. South of Center Ridge, Mt. Abel (pronounced A-bell) included the McDaniels from South Carolina and the Brown family. New Hope in Center Ridge included the Stokes family from South Carolina. By the writing of the Cypress Creek District History in the 1950s, Cypress Creek church, Mt. Abel, and New Hope were extinct and Hopewell would follow a short time later. The only original Cypress Creek district church from Center Ridge surviving today is Friendship which holds its own homecoming every other year.

The Sweet Home Baptist Church was established in 1897 and early families included the Cain, Knox, and Stevenson families from Georgia, the Hawkins the family from Tennessee, and the Dials, Hemphill, and Rhodes families from South Carolina. The Sweet Home church bell was borrowed years ago by unknown persons, and the church still awaits its return. A Church of God in Christ was later founded in the community. The COGIC organization boasts over seven million members with churches in over 60 nations, and their founder, Bishop C.H. Mason, actually spent some of his childhood in Conway County at the Mt. Olive community.

In addition to, and often as a part of these early churches, these pioneers set up schools for their children. Friendship School sat atop Morris Mountain, Hopewell School in the Formosa area, and Union Special near current day Hemphill and Sweet Home roads. After some of these early schools closed, African-American students in the area were bused over twenty miles away to school in Menifee. Eventually the county schools were desegregated, and the first black student graduated from Nemo Vista High School in Center Ridge in 1968.

The Sweet Home and Mt. Zion communities shared a school called Union Special.

These early families worked, studied, and worshipped in their new communities throughout Northeast Conway County. Their relationships with one another strengthened through marriages and childbirth. The 1920s, 30s, and 40s sent many of these early pioneer families’ children and grandchildren away to seek jobs in urban areas such as Denver, Kansas City, Omaha, and Los Angeles. Whereas in 1890 African-Americans represented around 40% of Conway County’s population, today, they account for only 13%. Though many of these groups are now gone from here, their descendants remain to carry on their legacy.



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23 thoughts on “A Short History on African-American Settlers and Communities at Center Ridge, Arkansas

  1. Pingback: The Agony and Mystique of Unknown Photographs: awesome old pictures inside! « Genealogics

  2. Pingback: Genealogics

  3. Gloria Pledger on said:

    This is RICH HISTOY! I’ve heard much of this for most of my life, through my grandparents Minor & Chaney Morris-George. I also spent a good portion of my life (summers & holidays) on Morris Mountain with my grandparents & other relatives(The Cleavy & Bessie Dooley family…my father’s family-“Pledgers”)



  5. Orealia L. Dooley on said:

    I have that photo and have the names of most of them in the school photo.

  6. Orealia L. Dooley on said:

    I have the names of close to 3/4 of the people pictured. They are all my grandparents, great aunts, great uncles and numerous cousins. That cool cat posing 3rd from the left standing on the first row is my Uncle James Dooley (my paternal grandfather’s brother). My grandfather is his younger brother standing almost dead center on the back row, 6th from the right, Thomas Pierce Dooley. Those little girls sprinkled on the ends of the second and third row are my great aunts, Miley, Curlie, Alfredo and Olivia Dooley- sisters to James and Thomas Pierce. One aunt married a Kemp and the other a Knox. I hope someone can find this pertinent. ~O~

    • Anonymous on said:


    • Hi my name is Tiffany McDaniel Brown I am looking for any information on my grandfather his name was Harrison McDaniel he was born on or about 1890 his father name was John McDaniel and his mother name was Ophelia McDaniel it was always told to me that there was about 10 to 13 boys in John and Ophelia family please help any information will be appreciated I am looking for long lost relatives my grandfather said he was born in Luck Mountain Township Arkansas he married my grandmother Elfleeter McDaniel her maiden name was Williamson she also was moved with 2 other times to a Brownew and a Mattison please help me find my family

      • Thank you for your message. I foudn these family you’re speaking of in the 1900 census in Lick Mountain Township. When searching the records, be careful not to mix your guy up with Harry McDaniel born 1887 to Harrison Sr and Mary Fowler. When the Cypress Creek Baptist Church District was founded in 1891, a now extinct church called Mt. Abel was represented by an H. McDaniel and H. McDaniel Jr. Not sure if they tie into your guy.
        There’s an Elfleeter Williamson age 5 in White County (not so far away) in the 1920 census. May be too young for your lady, but check her out. There’s an Ophelia McDaniel (1911-1998) buried in nearby Faulkner County, but I’m not sure the years match up with your lady. I hope some of this is helpful to you.

        • Tiffany on said:

          Omg Elfleeter Williamson was my grandmother’s maiden name her mother’s name was Luvenia Payne she married a man named General Payne thank you so much with the information this is my family years ago I went on and tried to trace my family tree please share if you have anymore information you can email me at I look forward to any information that you may have thank you thank you thank you

  7. Marva Jackson on said:

    I love this. Thanks for sharing it with us.

  8. Anonymous on said:

    My name is Helen Harper /Coles

    My great grand mother was Jane McFarland Morris and I believe she had 4 or 5
    sons and 1 daughter ( Their names was James aka Jim, Thomas aka Tom
    William aka Billy . Henry That passed early on and the one daughter Fannie
    That married Pleas Knox , that was the Pastor of Friendship Bpt. Grand ma Jane husband was Henry Morris and he worked for the railroad
    Her sons under her direction built Friend Baptist there is a spring that runs by the the church known as Aunt Jane’s spring . They can from Tennessee My information came from my mother Zadie B. Morris and my aunt Fannie F. Morris I love to repeat some of the history.

  9. Chris Morris on said:

    John Big Bud Morris is my great grandfather, My dad, John Morris started the Morris family reunion in 1988 in Little Rock, AR and it went on every two years until 1996, Hosting in different states , from Kansas, California, Detroit, St. Louis and Florida. We are currently working on reunion for 2017..stay tuned. We last visited Center Ridge, July 2017. I was upset to see the land slipping away to commercial drilling for oil.


    Chris Morris

  10. Gloria E. Moreland on said:

    My name is Gloria Moreland, looking for history and photos of my great grandfather Harrison McDaniel and great mother Mary Fowler McDaniel, they lived in lick mountain, looking for photos of all of my aunts and uncles
    Rachael McDaniel Lucas, Faith McDaniel…can’t locate whether she married or what happened to her or when she died, uncle Albert, Aunt Lena McDaniel Moore, Aunt Ella Mayfield Dalton, Uncles Matthew and Dexter McDaniel, Aunt Claudie,
    Aunt Slater and cousin Emma McDaniel..don’t know what happened to her. I am Isaac McDaniel’s granddaughter. 909.217.8594

    Any information or photos are appreciated

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